First things first. Before we get into our sources, listen to a pro musician playing a modern reconstruction of an ancient carnyx:
And here are some images of ancient carnyxes. Check out all the cool animal heads!
Here’s a picture of the Gundestrup Cauldron!
And here are close-ups of some of the panels:
Here’s a pic of the Vix cauldron:
And here’s one of the Snettisham Torque.
OK! On to our sources. The modern sources we used include:
Some articles we found useful include:
Our ancient sources include:
Pliny the Elder’s Natural History (John Bostock and H.T. Riley translation)
Posidonius of Rhodes (I. G. Kidd translation)
Cassius Dio’s Roman History (Earnest Cary translation)
Livy’s History of Rome (Rev. Canon Roberts translation)
Diodorus’ Library of History (Charles Henry Oldfather translation)
Ammianus Marcellinus’ Roman History (J.C. Rolfe translation)
Caesar’s Commentaries (W.A. MacDevitt translation)
Polybius’ Histories (William Roger Paton translation)
Frontinus’ Strategems (Charles E. Bennett translation)
Plutarch’s On the Bravery of Women (Loeb Classical Library edition)